Don Edrington's  PC Chat   nct-3.gif
PC Chat appears twice weekly in San Diego's North County Times & in Riverside County's The Californian.

Return to Home Page

Year 2000 aro-grn.gif Click Here for Complete Listing of 2000's PC Chats
Year 2001 aro-grn.gif Click Here for Complete Listing of 2001's PC Chats
Nov 4, 2001 Transferring Files from One Computer to Another
Nov 6, 2001 Managing Files & Folders 101
Nov 11, 2001 Managing "Shortcuts" 101
Nov 13, 2001 Questions & Help from a Reader
Nov 18, 2001 Some Windows Basics
Nov 20, 2001 "Block Sender" Options + Resizing Photos
Nov 25, 2001 Blocking Pop-Up Ads & Unwanted Email
Nov 27, 2001 Some Tips on Using PowerPoint
Nov 27
Some Tips on Using PowerPoint

     I mentioned recently that PowerPoint is a program that many people have, but which is used by relatively few. The program was designed primarily for business use, in that its main purpose is to create "slide shows" of the type a salesperson would show to a prospective customer. Now, instead of carrying a projector and a roll-up screen into a prospect's office, a colorful sales proposal can be shown right on his or her computer. These presentations can be as simple as some plain photos or drawings, or they can be jazzed up with lively animations and sound that can rival colorful commercials seen on TV. They can also be designed to be animated holiday greeting cards.

     Creating PowerPoint presentations can be fun, easy and very rewarding. I've helped a number of business people create them to demonstrate various products and services. I've also taught the program in high school ROP classes, and been amazed at how creative the students can be. I've learned some of my fanciest PowerPoint tricks from watching the kids at work.

     As for sending your creative efforts out as greeting cards - it's important to understand that the person on the receiving end must also have PowerPoint, which comes with most versions of MS-Office. It can also be purchased as a stand-alone program. For those who don't have the program, a free PowerPoint "player" can be downloaded from "" This free program can be used to play PowerPoint presentations, but not to create them.

     Presentations are made up of a series of "slides." In its simplest form, a presentation is a series of stationary images and text. But the beauty of the program is that all kinds of animation effects can be added to each slide.

     A line of text, for instance, can be made to appear on the screen one word or one letter at a time. The words or letters can be made to slide in from one edge of the screen, or the whole phrase can be made to appear in a "venetian blind" effect. These are just a couple of the many, many ways in which text and graphics can be made to materialize on the screen.

     There's not room here to give a tutorial on how to create a presentation, but here are some tips to get you started. After launching the program you can click on "AutoContent Wizard" and be led through a series of prompts that will have you up and running in no time.

     What I do, however, is go directly to "Blank Presentation" and build one from the ground up. This will display a window which shows a collection of suggested layouts. Dark bars represent "text boxes" where you'd type in a message. Cartoon faces represent "picture boxes" where graphics can be inserted. Other rectangles represent various kinds of "bulleted lists" and "charts," where you would substitute your own elements for the "dummy" items.

     All of these objects can be moved to any location on the slide you prefer. You are never limited to the suggested layout in the template. I prefer the "totally blank template" because all the things you see in any of the "suggested layout" choices can be created by the user in any way he or she prefers.

     Programs similar to PowerPoint are Lotus Freelance Graphics and Corel Presentations. Of course, using these programs means the prospective viewer of a presentation has to have compatible software.

Nov 25
Blocking Pop-Up Ads & Unwanted Email

     "How can I block unwanted e-mail?" and "How can I avoid pop-up ads?" are two of the most often asked questions I receive.

     Regarding unwanted e-mail, Outlook Express users can highlight any letter in their "In" box and go to Message, Block Sender. They can also go to Tools, Message Rules and edit their list of Blocked Senders.

     Yahoo e-mail users can go to Options, Block Addresses. Hotmail users can select any letter in their "In" box and click on Block Sender. Netscape users can go to Edit, Message Filters. AOL users can go to Mail, More, Mail Controls.

     As for avoiding pop-up ads, the November issue of the Fallbrook PC Users Group newsletter lists half a dozen Web sites that claim to have software that helps you do this. Their URLs are too long to list here, but I've put links to these sites on I confess to not having tested any of this software personally, since pop-up ads don't particularly bother me. I just X them out as soon as they pop up.

     In any case, I feel compelled to repeat that I think the FPCUG newsletter is the absolute best PC club newsletter I've ever seen; and I see lots of them. In my opinion, it's worth joining the club just to receive the letter in your mailbox each month. Information on how to contact the FPCUG can be found at

     Another frequent question: "Some incoming e-mail generates 'Java Script Error' messages; how can I stop this?" There are a number of things that can cause this, but the following suggestions should solve the problem for most people.

     Internet Explorer 5.0/6.0 users: Go to Tools, Internet Options. Click the Security tab and choose Internet Zone, Custom Level. Scroll down to Settings and change Java Script options to Disable or Prompt.

     Netscape users: Go to Edit, Preferences and click on the Advanced tab. UNcheck the three items regarding "Enable Java Script."

     AOL 6.0/7.0 users: Go to Settings, Preferences, (Internet Properties) WWW. Click the Security tab. The rest of the instructions are the same as for Internet Explorer.

     Dee Schmiderer called recently to ask why she can't open an e-mail attachment she received via Outlook Express. I asked Dee to forward the letter to me so I could take a look.

     Well, attachments received via OE are normally downloaded as another OE e-mail with the .EML extension. The attachment Dee received was a blank OE e-mail that contained yet another .EML attachment. Opening this attachment displayed an inspirational message with some graphics.

     So why was the document attached to a second letter when it could have been attached to the original? Well, this appears to be a case of hitting the "Forward" button rather than copying and pasting the document into a new e-mail. Personally, I never use the Forward option and tend to immediately delete incoming e-mail that has "Fwd" in the subject line.

     Gail Covell wrote to say she'd received an attachment with a .PPT extension and wondered why she couldn't open it. This is an extension for PowerPoint presentations, and can be opened with PowerPoint or with a PowerPoint Viewer, which can be freely downloaded from Microsoft.

     PowerPoint comes with most versions of MSOffice; but I've discovered that very few people who have the program realize they have it, or how to use it even when they do know. In brief, PowerPoint is used to create "presentations" which are a series of "slides" that can contain both animated and static graphics and text, as well as sound.

     Anyway, .PPT means the presentation is in its "editing" mode and it needs to be saved with a .PPS extension in order to have it run automatically.

     PowerPoint presentations are often used by salespersons to demonstrate products and services to a prospective customer, but the program can also be used by individuals to create things like a "Holiday Greetings Slide Show." More information on the program can be found at

Nov 20
"Block Sender" Options + Resizing Photos

     Wilson Bogan wrote to say he appreciates receiving my free newsletter, but wonders why it goes directly into his Deleted Items box when he tries to open it. Well, this is one of the many options Outlook Express has available to help you filter incoming messages. By going to Message, Block Sender when an incoming message's "From" line is highlighted, future mail from that sender will be blocked. I can only assume Wilson did this unknowingly when my name was highlighted.

     The fix for this is to go to Tools, Message Rules, Blocked Senders List and select the name you want unblocked. Click Remove and OK.

     Other "filter" options can be found by going to Message, Create Rule From Message.

     Bing Forbing wrote to ask how to reduce the size of a photo attachment that's too large to be printed on a sheet of paper. Well, all image-editing programs have a "Resize" tool available for doing this. In some programs it's called "Resample," while in Windows PaintBrush (Start, Programs, Accessories, Paint) the "Stretch & Skew" commands are used.

     Beyond this, an image can Copied and Pasted into a blank word processing document, where it can be resized by moving any of its corner "handles." If the image is bigger than the word processor's page there will usually be at least one of its corners showing. When a corner handle is moved towards the center of a graphic, the image shrinks in size and tends to move toward the center of page.

     In MSWord an image can be located anywhere on a page if it's enclosed in a "text box." Create this box first by going to Insert, Text Box. Your cursor will change to a small cross which will let you draw a rectangle of the approximate size and shape you want. Right-click inside the box and choose Paste. The box and image can both be resized if necessary. Double-clicking the image and/or frame will bring up a menu with all kinds of editing options, including various "border" schemes that might enhance the picture.

     If you're using text along with the picture, double-clicking the text box will also offer options regarding whether the text should go in front of the graphic or behind it or around it.

     Speaking of graphics, I've placed links to more Holiday and Patriotic Clipart on All the artwork is freely downloadable.

     Have you ever had your mouse suddenly stop functioning, thus making it impossible to continue working or even to shut down your PC properly? Well, a variety of keyboard options are available to get you going again. Alt+F4 will normally close any file you have open. Subsequent pressing of Alt+F4 will close remaining files and take you to Shut Down the Computer.

     Usually, a dead mouse can be resurrected by making sure it has a snug connection to the computer. If, however, buying a new mouse is in order, I'd recommend getting the optical kind, which has no moving parts that can pick up dust, lint and cat hairs. I've been using a Microsoft optical mouse for many months and couldn't be more pleased with it.

     Speaking of mice, if you've ever thought you'd like yours to display a larger pointer or to have faster or slower responses or to reverse the left and right button functions, double-click My Computer and choose Control Panel, Mouse. Experiment with the different options available to get the "look and feel" you're most comfortable with.

     However, back to keyboard substitutes for mouse-clicks; pressing Alt with a single letter will activate the Menu lists shown at the top of an open document. For instance, Alt+F, Alt+E or Alt+V will activate File, Edit or View, respectively. Your Arrow keys will then take you to your desired command, which can be activated by pressing Enter. Buttons in a dialog box can normally be reached with a combination of Arrow and Tab key moves.

Nov 18
Some Windows Basics

     Something I'm frequently asked is why email sent to generates an error message that keeps the letter from being sent. Well, those who have been using a computer any length of time know that addresses beginning with "www" or "http" are the URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of an Internet site, and that email addresses will always have the "@" sign in them. For instance, is the email address of my assistant Mary Hanson.

     How, then, can some email addresses simply be a person's name or nickname? Well, if you right-click one of these names and choose Properties, the underlying email address will be displayed.

     In fact, this might be a good time to review some of the questions most frequently asked by newer computer users.

     Why does Microsoft have three programs called "Explorer" i.e., Internet Explorer, Windows Explorer and MSN Explorer and what are their differences?

     Well, this is a tricky one that's best answered by first looking at the programs' differences. Windows Explorer is the built-in "file management" program that has come with all Windows operating systems since W95.

     Internet Explorer is one of the two most-used World Wide Web "browsers," with Netscape being its major competitor.

     MSN Explorer is a special browser created rather recently by Microsoft that lets users access areas if its MSN ISP (Microsoft Network Internet Service Provider) without actually signing up for the service.

     As for "why" there are different products named "Explorer," Microsoft critics will tell you that Mr. Gates had hoped to integrate Internet Explorer and Windows Explorer into a combination program that would be required to make future Windows operating systems work properly. Such a built-in feature could have very likely put competitors such as Netscape out of business, so its implementation was scuttled by the courts.

     It's also worth noting that in the early days of the WWW a browser had to be purchased, for $60 to $100, and that Netscape at one time had about 75% of the market. Later, Microsoft introduced Internet Explorer and gave it away free(also in an attempt to eliminate competitors, critics charge). Netscape had no choice but to make its browser free, and to pay for this by selling ad space on it. Now, of course, all browsers are loaded with ads.

     Another frequent question: Is Yahoo a "search engine" or an ISP? Well, it began as a search engine, with its ISP service being added later. Search engines, such as Yahoo, Google, Excite, and Ask Jeeves, are huge databases that can be freely used in conjunction with browsers to find things on the WWW. As with browsers, advertising pays for these services.

     Another question: When is a forward slash "/" or the back slash "\" supposed to be used? Answer: URLs can only contain forward slashes (http://) and paths leading to files and folders on a disk can only contain back slashes (c:\windows\system).

     The question I hear most often, however, is: How do I open an email attachment?

     Well, assuming the attachment is legitimate and not a virus, you need to look at the file's three-letter extension. Photo filenames usually have JPG, BMP or TIF appendages, while TXT and DOC indicate text documents. EML means Outlook Express email, which may contain text and/or graphics, as can PDF files. HTM and HTML files are Web pages and can be viewed with your browser. ZIP or MIM extensions indicate compressed files which, when decompressed and extracted with WinZip, will display one or more photo and/or text files.

     In Outlook Express, attachments are downloaded by double-clicking their filenames in the "Attach" box, while most other email clients have a "Download" button that needs to be clicked.

Nov 13
Questions & Help from a Reader

     Ralph "Pete" Peters had an interesting problem recently. He said he had a multi-page MSWord document which, when printed out, displayed a date in its lower right corner. He went on to say that there was no sign of this item in the document's screen view, but that it showed up in the Print Preview mode.

     This could only mean one thing: Pete had unknowingly created a "Footer" into which the mysterious date had somehow been entered. I told him to go to View, Header & Footer, where he would be able to see the entry and delete it.

     In case you're not familiar with Headers and Footers, they are items that normally appear at the top and/or bottom of a document and which are carried forward from one page to the next. A story's title, for instance, is often shown in a Header, while Page Numbers are usually shown in a Footer.

     In Microsoft documents, going to Insert, Page Numbers will get you into this mode, as will going to View, Header & Footer. Setting up incremental page numbering varies in different types of documents, but there are prompts to help you through it.

     While editing a Header or a Footer, its text will be in a solid color, whereas the main body of the document will be displayed in light gray. Clicking back in the body text causes the Header and Footer to disappear, thus creating additional space on the screen for editing the main document. In Print Preview, however, everything shows just as it will print out.

     But Pete had yet another problem. He wanted to create mailing labels using MSWorks 2001, in which MSWord has replaced the old Works word processing program. He had created his database with Works, but could not find the file from within Word. I told him that Word, by default, looks for Word documents with a .DOC extension and that he needed to click on Files of Type and choose Works Database files with a .WDB extension.

     He said that no way could he find any files ending in .WDB. Well, it occurred to me that perhaps NONE of his files showed a three-letter extension, because Microsoft mysteriously has these extensions hidden whenever Windows is first installed.

     Since Pete has WinME, I suggested he get into Windows Explorer and go to Tools, Folder Options, View and UNcheck the box in front of "Hide Extensions for Known File Types." (To find this message in Win98, go to View, Folder Options, View.)

     This worked just fine for Pete and he happily told me he could now find his LABELS.WDB file. However, there was still one more problem. In three recent PC Chats I explained how to do mailing labels with different programs, including older versions of MSWorks; but none of these instructions covered merging Works DB files into Word, using MSWorks 2001. So Pete figured it all out, and sent me a set of instructions that he hoped could help other MSWorks 2001 users.

     After creating an MSWorks database with First Name, Last Name, Address, City, State and Zip fields, get into MSWord and do the following: Go to Tools, Mail Merge, Document Type, Mailing Labels. In the Open Data Source window, click Merge Info From Other File. Browse your way to the Works DB file and click Open. Cick OK to Choose Setup Button.

     In Mail Merge Helper click Setup. Choose Avery No. 5160/8160 labels (or whatever type your prefer).

     Click OK to bring up Create Labels and click on Sample Label. Click Insert Merge Field.

     In the Sample Label template, click the various fields into place, beginning with First Name. Press Space Bar to insert blank spaces where needed. Click OK to return to the Mail Merge Helper window. Click Merge in #3, which brings up the Merge window. Finally, click Merge, and the names and addresses should appear correctly in the Word label display. Click File, Print Preview to see what the actual print-out will look like.

     You should now be ready to insert blank label sheets into your printer. However, it always pays to do a print-out on a blank sheet of paper, just to make sure.

Nov 11
Managing "Shortcuts" 101

     We've talked recently about creating our own special folders and putting them where we want them; but how can they be quickly and easily accessed when we need them? The answer: Create a "Shortcut" and put it on your Desktop.

     First let's consider what a Windows "Shortcut" is by looking at the icons on your Desktop. Any icon with a small bent arrow in its lower left corner is a Shortcut. Double-clicking it takes you directly to the file or folder that its name represents. If you right-click a Shortcut and choose Properties/Shortcut you will find the "path" leading to the target folder or file.

     A Shortcut can be made to any file or folder by finding the target item in Windows Explorer and right-clicking it. Let's use the "Fonts" folder, which is inside the "Windows" folder, as an example. Right-click the Fonts icon and choose "Create Shortcut." A new icon named "Shortcut To Fonts" will appear at the end of the list of files in "Windows." Drag this icon onto your "Desktop" icon in the left Windows Explorer pane. Exit Windows Explorer and return to your Desktop, where you'll find the Shortcut, ready to use.

     Double-clicking it will take you directly to the "Fonts" folder. You can also right-click the Shortcut's label and choose Rename to change "Shortcut To Fonts" to simply "Fonts."

     An alternative method of creating this Shortcut is to right-click your Desktop and choose New/Shortcut. A "browse" window will let you find the target icon. Click OK to create the Shortcut.

     If you'd like to make a Shortcut to an ".EXE" file (such as EXCEL. EXE) simply locate its icon and drag it onto your Desktop, where it will be named "Shortcut To Excel." Although most files and folders can be physically dragged and dropped from one location to another on a hard disk, .EXE files cannot. The dragging will simply create a Shortcut to the file.

     Should you want to actually move an .EXE file, you can right-click it and choose the "Send To" option. As an alternative you can right-click the .EXE icon and choose Copy. Right-click the Desktop (or any folder into which you wish to place the file) and choose Paste. Then go back and Delete the file from its original location. However, moving .EXE files is generally not recommended, since other files may not work if they're dependent on the .EXE file being in the place where it was originally installed.

     In any case, Shortcuts are not limited to being located on your Desktop. An example: any Microsoft Office file you create and save, by default, goes into the "My Documents" folder. If, however, you'd like your MSWord documents to go into special folders named, say, "Mom," "Dad," or "Johnny," you could create these folders and put Shortcuts to them inside the "My Documents" folder.

     Another thing you can do with Shortcuts is change their icons to ones you like better. Right-click any Shortcut icon and choose Properties/Change Icon. Doing so will display alternative icons associated with the program to which the Shortcut pertains. If you don't find anything you like, try browsing to C:\Windows\System32\Shell32. dll, where all kinds of icons can be found.

     If you'd like to make your own icons, you can download Icon Studio from www. pcdon. com.

     Speaking of my Web site, I've made a bunch of free holiday clipart available for downloading, including a number of animated drawings. Just right-click any graphic. Internet Explorer users choose Save Picture As, while Netscape users can choose Save Image. Also to be found the site: illustrated instructions for printing address labels and envelopes.

     One final word about Shortcuts. Deleting one does NOT delete the underlying file or folder. Think of a Shortcut as being a "directional road sign" pointing to a city. If the sign is destroyed, the city is still there. Having said this, however, it's helpful to know that files dragged on to a folder's Shortcut will actually go into that folder.

Nov 6
Managing Files & Folders 101

     I continue to get lots of questions about managing files and folders. Let's take a look at the basics. If you think of your computer's hard drive as being a huge filing cabinet, it's easy to visualize the yellow "folder" icons as being the places we store all our files.

     As for files, they are represented by a variety of icons, many of which suggest what kind of file they stand for. Because today's hard drives can hold so much data, it's essential to have an organized structure of file and folder locations to keep track of where everything is.

     Think of your hard disk, the C: Drive, as being your master filing cabinet. Inside this cabinet you can store hundreds of folders, which can contain still other folders, as well as endless numbers of files. These files and folders can be named anything you want, and can be located anywhere you want. Certain "system" files and folders can't be renamed or relocated, but you have control over all the ones you create.

     This means you can create a folder named, say, Correspondence, into which you could place two folders named In and Out. Inside each of these folders you could place other folders named, say, Clients or New Prospects or Personal or whatever. Folders inside of these folders might be listed as 2001, 2000, 1999, etc. with each of these folders containing twelve others. Inside each of these folders, others could be arranged in alphabetical order. The combinations of folder arrangements are limited only by your own imagination.

     To get an overview of how your files and folders are arranged you need to get into Windows Explorer. Right-click Start or My Computer and choose Explore. A window will appear which is divided into two panes; a narrow one on the left and a wide one on the right. In the left pane you'll see a vertical listing of folders along with icons for your other "filing cabinets" i.e. A: and D: or whatever. What you won't see in the left pane is a "file" icon of any kind.

     File icons will be displayed in the right pane when a folder in the left pane is double-clicked. Also shown to the right are folders nested inside other folders, which, when double-clicked, display their contents. Double-clicking a file icon can launch a program, depending on what kind of icon it is.

     Notice that some of the folder icons in the left pane have a plus sign (+) in front of them. This symbol tells us that the folder contains one or more folders of its own. Each click will convert a plus sign to a minus sign (-) and will display another level of nested folders, some of which may also have plus signs. Clicking a minus sign will restore a folder to its "unopened" appearance.

     If you look carefully at these nested folders, you'll notice that your "Desktop" is actually a folder inside the "Windows" folder.

     Click the Windows Explorer's X to return to the Desktop, where we'll create a new folder. Do this by right-clicking the Desktop and choosing New, Folder. Its label reads "New Folder" and invites you to overtype it with a name of your choosing. Let's call it "Correspondence." Now we'll move it to another location. Double-click My Computer so that your C: Drive icon is in view. Drag and drop the newly created folder onto this icon.

     The next time you get into Windows Explorer you'll see "Correspondence" listed alphabetically along with its brethren folders. Open this folder with a double-click and go to File, New, Folder to create one which you'll name "In." To create an "Out" folder you can, as an alternative, right-click inside it and choose New, Folder. Double-click either of these two icons to gain entrance and to continue creating any nested folders you might need.

     Next time we'll talk about creating shortcuts to these and other folders which don't appear on your Desktop. We'll also learn how to change the icons that identify these folders to make them easier to find.

Nov 4
Transferring Files from One Computer to Another

     One of the significant differences between WinXP and its various Windows predecessors is that ScanDisk has been replaced by CHKDSK. Most Windows users have become familiar with the fact that running ScanDisk and Defrag periodically helps keep their computers running more efficiently. ScanDisk comes in two versions: Standard and Thorough, with the latter taking longer to run, but capable of finding and repairing errors on a PC's hard drive. Defrag defragments the hard disk by realigning files that may have gotten out of sequence due to the normal ongoing creation and deletion of files.

     For optimum PC performance, these two utilities should be run monthly by the average user, and more frequently by heavy-duty users. However, many have found that both ScanDisk and Defrag may get bogged down and quit prematurely. There are a variety of ways to overcome these hangups, but rather than use up the rest of this column with the specifics, I've made them all available at

     As for CHKDSK, pre-Windows users may remember this command as being the DOS predecessor of ScanDisk. In WinXP it can be run from DOS by going to Start, Run, and typing in COMMAND, followed by typing in CHKDSK and pressing Enter. However, just going to Start, Run and typing CHKDSK will get you to the same DOS prompt.

     CHKDSK has only one version, however it scans and repairs a hard disk much faster than ScanDisk's "Thorough" version; and I have yet to see it quit prematurely. WinXP's Defrag can be found by going to Start, All Programs, Accessories, System Tools, Disk Defragmenter. WinXP's Defrag also runs faster than its Win9x/ME predecessors and, again, does not quit prematurely.

     Speaking of hard drive maintenance, let's not overlook Disk Cleanup. Double-click My Computer and then right-click the C: drive icon. Choose Properties and you'll see a pie chart showing the used and free space ratio on this disk. Clicking Disk Cleanup will display a window which asks if you want to delete files in certain folders, such as Windows\Temp and Temporary Internet Files, as well as those in your Recycle Bin. Clicking OK will free up some hard disk space. However, Temporary Internet Files will normally fill up again, since it's a "first-in first-out" cache which makes recently accessed Web items more quickly reaccessible.

     I should point out that some folks delete these files regularly so that others can't easily see where they've been on the 'net. Clearing out all "History" folders also helps cover one's track. Another folder that some clean out regularly is "Cookies." If you don't know where these folders are, go to Start, Find or Search, Files & Folders, and type in the target folder's name.

     Another neat feature of WinXP is its built-in software which lets you transfer files from one computer to another. Its file transfer "wizard" will guide you, step-by-step, through moving files via a network or by using a "null modem" serial cable. The former requires each PC to have a network port, while the latter uses the 9-pin serial ports that come with most new computers. Network transfers are faster than serial transfers, but going serial means you don't have to install network cards in your PCs.

     Speaking of moving files from one PC to another, it can be done without Windows XP. SkyDesk, a San Diego firm, sells a product called "SmartClone" which will not only move files, it will accurately reproduce all your personal settings, such as your Address Books, Web Favorites and Bookmarks. Information on SmartClone can be found at

     Another company that has been developing this kind of software for many years is LapLink (formerly known as Traveling Software) and they can be found at By the way, there's a special term for this kind of file transferring: "data migration." The first time I heard it I had a vision of thousands of scraps of paper moving from one room to another by sliding themselves under a door.

book-c.gif 100768 bytes